2014, 11: 10-10.1186/2045-8118-11-10. Neurosci. In both cases, our findings could not be fitted into “classic” CSF physiology hypothesis.

10.1016/j.brainresrev.2010.04.006. extensively reviewed recent findings about CSF circulation in a recent article: “A new look at cerebrospinal circulation”, but did not analyze some important available data in sufficient detail.

Namely, according to the “classic” hypothesis, CSF is mainly produced by the choroid plexuses inside brain ventricles, then it circulates unidirectionally through the ventricles, and further along the subarachnoid spaces (SAS), to be passively absorbed into the venous blood across arachnoid villi. Bulat M, Klarica M: Recent insights into a new hydrodynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid. 10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00395-6. The main misunderstanding relating to the study of CSF “circulation” has been made by (mis)interpretation of experimental results in which the two physiological processes (movement of CSF and distribution of substances) have not been differentiated, and when substance distribution has been used as a marker of “circulation”. Darko Orešković or Marijan Klarica. Alperin N, Hushek SG, Lee SH, Sivaramakrishman A, Lichtor T: MRI study of cerebral blood flow and CSF flow dynamics in upright posture: the effect of posture on the intracranial compliance and pressure. Finally, as in the original experiments of Dandy, the experiments of Klarica et al.

We observed the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the upright position and found a long-lasting sub-atmospheric intracranial pressure, zero CSF pressure in the cervical region and +30 cm H2O in the lumbar region. By using this website, you agree to our The endothelium forms the major interface between the blood and the CNS, and by a combination of low passive permeability and presence of specific transport systems, enzymes and receptors regulates molecular and cellular traffic across the barrier layer.

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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons 2001, 56: 622-624. Life Sci. For treating lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), models can be included that mimic aspects of the disease, including genetically-modified animals, and in vitro models can be used to examine the effects of cells of the NVU on the BBB under pathological conditions. However, current treatment options are limited to hyperosmolar agents and surgical decompression, therapies introduced more than 70 years ago. Acta Neurochir (Wien). Igarashi H, Tsujita M, Kwee IL, Nakada T: Water influx into cerebrospinal fluid is primarily controlled by aquaporin-4, not by aquaporin-1: 17O JJVCPE MRI study in knockout mice. Namely in the cranium, the dura is firmly attached to the bone and the subdural volume cannot not be changed significantly. Part of Springer Nature. 2002, 327: 103-106.

Coll Antropol. 17O JJVCPE imaging to test the hypothesis that water movement within the pericapillary (Virchow–Robin) space is critical for CSF volume homeostasis (Orešković and Klarica hypothesis). PLoS One. 2002, 321: 123-125. 1972, 35: 468-473. Authors: Thomas Brinker, 1, Edward Stopa 1, John Morrison 1, Petra Klinge 1. 2005, 95 (Suppl): 177-181. Google Scholar. (Electronic): Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces brain edema after acute water intoxication and ischemic stroke. For many of these diseases it is still not clear how best to deliver appropriate drugs to the CNS, and a concerted approach using a variety of models and methods can give critical insights and indicate practical solutions. between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. 10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00823-7. Orešković, D., Klarica, M. A new look at cerebrospinal fluid movement. PubMed  Furthermore, our recent experiments in anaesthetized cats involved no surgical intervention apart from invasive CSF pressure monitoring [11]. However, when the active transport was blocked in animals by probenecid, the concentration of monitored substances in parenchyma and in “peripheral” CSF compartments [8, 10] was significantly increased (during the same period of time) in comparison to control animals. CAS  J Neurosurg. 2010, 64: 241-262. Orešković D, Klarica M, Vukić M: Does the secretion and circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid really exist?. 10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00823-7. 10.1097/00000658-191908000-00001. Weller RO, Kida S, Zhang ET: Pathways of fluid drainage from the brain - morphological aspects and immunological significance in rat and man. Pathophysiology of cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial pressure. However, CSF/water volume is slowly carried bidirectionally along all CSF spaces by the systolic-diastolic to-and-fro displacement [3, 10]. transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. Publication date (Electronic): 1 May 2014 . CAS  2012, 4: 1-11. NeuroReport. 1977, 47: 391-396. No. Mechanisms of fluid movement into, through and out of the brain: evaluation of the evidence, Signal Increase on Unenhanced T1-Weighted Images in the Rat Brain After Repeated, Extended Doses of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Fluid and ion transfer across the blood–brain and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barriers; a comparative account of mechanisms and roles. Since they furthermore showed that following its intraventricular injection radioactive water is almost completely absorbed in the ventricles and does not reach the basal cisterns[5], they concluded that choroid plexus is not the major site of CSF production and that no direct CSF circulation according classical understanding exists. While some of our models were indeed based on neurosurgical treatment [3, 7, 9], the majority of our experiments were based on freely-moving dogs and cats [5, 8, 10]. 10.3171/jns.1977.47.3.0391.

Rennels ML, Gregory TF, Blaumanis OR, Fujimoto K, Grady PA: Evidence for a “paravascular” fluid circulation in mammalian central nervous system, provided by rapid distribution of tracer protein throughout the brain from subarachnoid space. PubMed  Edward Stopa 1 , 1977, 47: 391-396. They nicely summarized current achievements in the CSF physiology which open new vistas, and stressed the need of reconsidering the traditional hypothesis of CSF physiology. Orešković D, Klarica M, Vukić M: The formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cat brain ventricles: a fact or an illusion?. Article  0095229. Brinker et al.

Brinker et al. 1985, 326: 47-63. However, when the active transport was blocked in animals by probenecid, the concentration of monitored substances in parenchyma and in “peripheral” CSF compartments [8, 10] was significantly increased (during the same period of time) in comparison to control animals. In fact, the proposed model does not consider the complex regulation of water movement between the brain compartments as discussed above. 10.1111/j.1750-3639.1992.tb00704.x. Article  Fluids Barriers CNS. The result clearly demonstrated that water influx into CSF is regulated by AQP-4, known to be responsible for water homeostasis of the pericapillary space, and not by AQP-1 found in the choroid plexus, strongly supporting the Orešković and Klarica hypothesis”. We did not attempt to reproduce the experiment of Dandy [2]. ... A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation. waiver ( Zmajević M, Klarica M, Varda R, Kudelić N, Bulat M: Elimination of phenolsulphonphthalein from the cerebrospinal fluid via capillaries in central nervous system in cats by active transport.